Answers to frequently asked questions about Avocados
Choosing a variety of avocados
There are over 900 named varieties of avocados, how do you choose one? Well, the choice in commercial retail nurseries is somewhat limited, compared to what is offered to avocados-only nurseries, used by growers. But you have choices. Generally, avocado trees are large and need space. ‘Hass’ has a umbrella in the shape of an umbrella, but ‘Reed’ is more columnar and needs less space. “Holiday” is a smaller tree than “Hass” and “Littlecado” is a smaller tree. You can also choose based on when you want to choose your fruit. For example, “Fuerte” is a winter fruit and “Reed” is the fruit of the summer. This means they have a better taste in these seasons, but they will keep on the tree for a much longer period of time. You can also choose based on taste. Of course, this is very subjective, but “Zutano”, “Bacon” and “Stewart” have a lower content of beneficial oils than “Hass”, “Pinkerton” and “Reed”.
Many consider Nabal the best tasting fruit. It is a variety of summer and is difficult to find in retail nurseries, but sometimes you can order them for delivery later by taking a few months patience!
You can read more about varieties at: http://ucavo.ucr.edu/AvocadoVarieties/VarietyFrame.html#Anchor-47857 . But remember, most of them are not available in retail outlets.
How to tell when an avocado is ripe
Avocado is an amazing fruit. It grows in a tree and comes to maturity, it reaches some “fatty flesh” content and a stage in which it will mature but does not mature in the tree. It must be removed from the tree before it is softened. If fruits are removed before they reach the stage before maturity, they will not soften and will remain elastic and non-edible. One of the problems is that the fruit will hang on the tree for a long time and it is difficult to know when it is ripe . Avocados are not like apricots, where you have about 2 weeks to make the fruit before they fall. As the fruit stays in the tree gradually grows more and more oil and has a richer taste.
If the fruit remains in the tree for too long, the oil can grow too much and lose its taste. So it is good to know when it is the best, acceptable flavor. Varieties of avocados fall into general seasonal periods when mature – “Fuerte” in winter, “Hass” in spring / summer, “Lamb-Hass” in summer / autumn. Or you can pick a fruit and put it on the counter and watch to see if it softens evenly. If it does in a two week period, the rest of the tree is good to go.
Mulch and avocado
I just put all the leaves under the avocado and it looks so nice. Avocado is shallow-rooted and really depends on the natural leaf leaves to protect its roots. In fact, the roots will really colonize the mulch as if it were ground. This spoon is also a first line of defense against the root of sepsis. The decomposed leaves create a hostile environment in the microorganism that causes the disease. How to cool avocados
Ripe avocados can be a large tree but have very shallow roots. Their largest volume is in the top 8 inches of the ground. Therefore, the tree does not have access to large volumes of stored water. Unlike a deep-rooted walnut, frequent, small amounts of water are needed. A new tree in the summer may need multiple applications a week, but because the root system is small, each application can be only 5-20 gallons. An older tree with the broadest rooting pattern can spend one week in one month between irrigations depending on weather and rainfall. Proper irrigation is the best way to keep avocados from destroying the root. Both above and below irrigation can cause conditions for root rot, although irrigation is more common. And remember, it’s not just the amount applied to irrigation, but also the time it’s important, too. How to Identify the Root of Seborn And Treat It
The dome is thin. The leaves are small and yellow. There is loss in the dome, with intact edges on the branches. You can dig below the dome in the wet area of
What do you do if you have a disease? There are fungicides available from the nursery, but there are many things you can do before applying this. First of all get a handle for irrigation. Make sure you are irrigated to the needs of the tree. Check soil moisture before irrigation. Make sure the tree does not get complementary water from another area, such as a lawn launcher. Make sure there is a good thick, woody mulch beneath the dome. Adding plaster (15-20 pounds per tree) evenly distributed under the dome can also help, but reviewing and modifying practical irrigation is the most important thing you can do.
The most important thing you can do before planting is to evaluate soil pH before planting. Avocados are very sensitive to soil pH greater than 7. Their iron and zinc intake can be compromised and will suffer. Correcting soil pH before planting is the easiest way to approach the problem instead of trying to fix it later when the tree is on the ground. It is then expensive and it takes a long time to fix the problem without killing the tree. The elemental sulfur (not the popcorn sulfur) in beads is the easiest way to achieve this. Watering and waiting for the sulfur to make the change and then check to make sure the pH is really down, it takes about 6 months.
The thing to remember
is that the tree because of its shallow root system likes small, frequent amounts of nutrients. And because it is a subtropical plant, it goes quietly in winter and when the ground is cold. The next year doubles that amount and makes it for every next year for the next 5 years. The smallest applications you make the less total nitrogen fertilizer you will use. Use the equivalent amount of nitrogen, whether it is a synthetic source or an organic source. Once the tree has begun to develop a thick layer of leaves, it is possible to revert to nitrogen applications, because now the rotten feeds some of the nutrients. Just watch the color of the leaf to make sure it remains green, indicating sufficient nitrogen.
Begin to bear fruit around the third year, they may need potassium. This is not necessary in all situations throughout the state, but the harvested avocado fruit contains twice as much potassium than nitrogen and when the fruit is removed, the tree may start showing symptoms of potassium deficiency. This may be broken down into a laboratory, but perhaps the best thing to do is simply apply potassium sulphate at a rate equivalent to nitrogen or use the triple 15 fertilizer to cover both the nitrogen and potassium needs. For organic farmers it can use organic potassium sulphate or seaweed.
Custom avocados flowering
Avocado is an unusual beast in many ways. And flowering is no exception. Here is what is called modern dysgeomymus. The flower has both male and female parts, but these parts open at different times, open first as females, close and then open as males. It does this within two days, so in fact it can not be pollinated. To make it more interesting, there are so-called varieties A and B. . This is the way you get cross pollination. It sounds very good as a model, but avocados did not read the book because for a given variety there are always some delays and there are often both female and male stages in the same tree.
The mother of all diseases
Currently, in the Florida area there is a complex of pests called Laurel Wilt disease. This is caused by a fungus carried by a ragweed beetle. The beetle is extremely small and carries the fungus to the parts of its mouth. The beetle holes in the wood, the fungus spreads. Most beetles are females. They put their eggs on the wood, the fungus begins to grow, the eggs are incubated and the larvae feed on the fungus that grows on the wood. The problem with this fungus is that it grows, blocking vases that bring water (wood mill) and the tree dies from lack of water. This happens very quickly, within a year. At this point, there really are no effective sprays to control the beetle or fungicides to control the fungus.
Frost and avocado protection
Avocados are generally very sensitive to frost, but yards tend to be warmer than open fields, and homeowners can often grow trees with less concern than growers. All young trees are more susceptible to the freezer than a tree that has a complete dome to the ground. Dome traps heat and hold the tree warmer than the surrounding air.
When the trees are small they are small enough for the frozen cloth to be framed around the young tree. This usually provides at least 5 degrees of protection. Only a blanket can be used, and a structure is made to hold off the tree. When trees grow and are too big to cover, homeowners have used a sting of lights in the dome to produce heat. Make sure they are lights designed for outdoors.
There are differences in how cold a tree will get. ‘Hass’ and ‘Holiday’ are very sensitive, while ‘Stewart’ and ‘Zutano’ are much more tolerant. Here is a comparative diagram of the different varieties
|Variety of frost resistance|
|Race||Typical varieties||Significant temperature below which fruit and / or trees are damaged|
|Mexican||Duke, Topa topa, Mexicola, Zutano, Bacon||25 degrees F|
|Hybrids||Fuerte, Puebla||28 degrees F|
|Guatemala (Tender)||Ryan, Hass, MacArthur, Nabal, Endranol, Rincon||29 degrees F|
|Guatemala (very Tender)||Anaheim, Dickinson, Carlsbad||30 degrees F|
Recognizing the destruction of the avocado
Avocado leaves appear dimly or loose during periods of low temperature. This is a natural protective response to freezing temperatures and does not mean that the leaves have been frozen. The leaves will be firm and brittle and will often bend when they are freezing. The leaves are inflamed after thawing and if the injury is not too great, they gradually regain the pigeon and recover, leaving dark spots on the leaves. Seriously frozen leaves collapse, dry and remain in the tree. The foliage of recent rinses is more sensitive to this damage. If the branches or wood have been seriously damaged, the frozen leaves can remain on the tree for several weeks. If the branches and wood have not suffered serious damage, the leaves are thrown quickly. Trees that lose their leaves quickly are often a good sign and they are not, as many growers believe is a sign of extensive damage.
Cold damage to the branches occurs as wetting or discoloration of water. In older branches and trunks, it appears as a breakage or loosening of the bark where the cambium has been killed. The bark can be curved and dried with many small cracks. Dead crust patches may occur at various points in the limbs and the trunk. Frost sensitivity depends on many variables. For avocados, Hass is as tolerant as lemons, while Bacon is more tolerant. Healthy trees are more tolerant than underlined. The subject also confers sensitivity to the flock. Injury to foliage and young trees may be readily recognizable, but the actual extent of damage to larger branches, trunks, and subjects can not occur for up to four months after freezing.
Restoration of avocados suffering from freezing
The only treatment that needs to be done quickly after freezing is whitening. Often, the most serious damage after freezing is due to sunburn of exposed branches and veins after defoliation. Temperatures should not be extremely high to cause sunburn. The lime must be white on the tree, so do not add much water.
Try to cut the shelves with the existing branches. Do not leave branches or irregular surfaces.
Irrigate carefully! Irrigation will not lead to a rapid recovery.Instead, it can cause root damage and encourage the growth of root organisms. This is particularly true for avocados.
Care must be taken to fertilize the trees that have been destroyed by freezing. Deficiencies of zinc, manganese, copper and iron are more likely to develop.
Avocado and citrus barrier and transplantation
By: Pam Elam
This publication is a brief introduction to the incubator and vaccination for the home gardener. For more information, consult the material listed at the end of this publication or contact your local Co-operation Office.
Creation of seedlings
The best time of year to start citrus or avocado plants is in early spring. To germinate citrus seeds or avocados, plant them in a shallow container, such as a flat nursery or a well with drain holes in a well drained commercial potter mixer. Place the seeds two to three times deeper than their length. Keep the seed in a warm place between 70 ° and 27 ° C and keep the soil moist. Covering the compartments with clean glass or plastic will help maintain the right humidity. Place toothpicks horizontally into the seeds near the top. Hang the wide end of the seed into a small water container with the toothpicks touching the tip of the pot. After vegetation (usually 12 to 15 days), re-plant the plants in a larger, commercially available mixing bowl of good quality. Punch the drain holes in the bottom of the container.
Keys for sneezing and vaccination
One of the most important keys to successful hatching and vaccination is to properly position the seed in the subject. If they do not touch each other, the eye or graft will fail. Within 10 to 15 days, a successful eye or graft forms a tough white tissue (callus) where the two bell layers develop together. Always use sharp cutting or grading tools and make clean, even cuts. Options include a poppy knife, a sharp kitchen knife or a thin single-sided razor. Do not allow the cut surfaces of the seed or the underlying to dry. Immerse the cutting herds in a container of water, wrap them in plastic or graft them immediately after cutting. Also, remove the leaves from the heirs after cutting, to help the heirs lose water. Keep the herds in a cool place during work.
In addition to being the easiest method, it allows a large number of plants to multiply from a small amount of woody wood and is suitable for trees, substrates or branches of 1/4 to 1 inch (0.6 to 2.5 cm) in diameter.The best citrus budwood is right below the latest outburst of new growth. the best budwood avocado is located close to the terminal end of the shoots that have fully matured, leather leaves. How to Make a T-Eye T-budding (see Figure 1) is generally the best development method for citrus and avocados. To create a T-bud, make a T-cut in the underlying place about 8 to 12 inches (20 to 30 cm) above the ground The vertical section of the T should have a length of about 2.5 cm and the horizontal section is about one third of the distance around the subject. Rotate the knife gently to open the bark wings. Avoid cutting the eye of the underlying skin.
In the tibia (Fig. 1B), cut a selected eye that starts about 1.2 cm below the eye and ends about 1.9 to 2.5 cm beyond the eye. Make a horizontal cut about 3/4 inches (1.9 cm) above the eye under the bark and into the wood. Gently remove the hat-shaped hat-shaped piece .
Pull the log down into the T-shaped cut under the two bark flaps until the horizontal cuts of the bud match with the horizontal T cut (Figure 1D). After placing the shell on the subject, wrap the bud and the subjects with the puffing rubber (Fig. 1E). Inflatable rubber is available from agricultural supplies or from hardware stores. if rubber is not available, use a wide strip of rubber, green tie tape or elastic band. Do not overlap the area with a candle or sealant. If hatching occurs in the fall, the buds should heal in about 6 to 8 weeks. in spring, healing should take about 3 to 4 weeks. This will be the nurse’s branch, which helps protect the new family union. After the few new leaves grow, remove the nurse’s case completely at a distance of about 1/8 inch (3 mm) above the bud link.
Improving whip. The best vaccination technique for subjects with a smaller diameter of 1/4 to 1/2 inch (0.6 to 1.2 cm) is the vaccination of the whip. Although whip cuttings use more tree wood than budding, they allow the grafted plant to grow faster. To make a mastic graft (figure 3), select as hard and mature green wood. First make a long, sloping cut of about 1 to 2 ½ inches (2.5 to 6.2 cm) on the emblem (figure 3A).Make a proper cut in the flock. Cut a “tongue” on both the tree and the subject, cropping down on the wood (Fig. 3B-3C). Languages
The best vaccination technique for trees or branches of large diameter is the inoculation of the cortex. If possible, try to keep a branch of the original plant as a nurse’s branch. We cut vertical slots 21/2 to 3 1/2 inches (6.2 to 8.7 cm). Through the crust of the remains of freshly cut remains under the wood. These slots must be 3 to 5 inches (7.5 to 12.5 cm) in width. Cut the herds 5 to 6 inches (12.5 to 15 cm) in length with 4 to 6 buds per femur (Fig. 4A-4C). When cutting the pedigrees, make an inclined cut of about 3 inches (7.5 cm) in length on the base of the seed.Using a grasping knife or other very sharp knife, lift the bark on one side of the slit. Insert the flock into the slot with the elongated surface of the frame facing the wood of the subject and push it down into the slot.
Ensure citrus citrus by pinning them in place with thin flat-head studs or attaching them with a strong cord or tree tape. Secure the sporty avocado with a plastic baby band. Apply all cut surfaces thoroughly, including apple peaks, with wax or cuttings. To protect the graft from sunburn, paint it with a white, water-based internal dye, either insoluble or mixed with 50/50 water. Paint the entire area around the grafting junction, including the generators, the waxed areas and the exposed trunk beneath the grafting compound. Frequently inspect the grafts and resume if they begin to break or dry.As soon as the flocks grow, remove everything except one flock per branch. The one flock you hold will eventually become a major scaffolding branch.
Top job is the process of changing fruit varieties in a mature tree.